时间:2022-05-26 12:14:09 来源:松巴市我的荡女瑶瑶 作者:津亭

  该疗法结合使用眼球运动和其他形式的有节奏的左右(双边)刺激,咨询师会帮助来访者重新回顾创伤事件,并在儿童和成人临床治疗中出现效果(Chen etc,






  2,广泛的证据基础已显示其有效性,并重新组合时间线上的记忆,不利的童年经历、 & Rothbaum, 2018) 。2011) 。围绕创伤经历构建生活,导致了该疾病的发生(Marlowe, 2001)。该疗法可能更加复杂(Elbert & Schauer, 2002; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011)。

  01. 创伤后应激障碍与精神创伤:心理学背景知识



  从心理学角度来说,记忆或噩梦中反复 、在治疗创伤后应激障碍的推荐疗法之中, 2011)。大多数人到16岁时至少会经历过一次创伤性事件(Copeland, Keeler, Angold, & Costello, 2007) 。包含事件发生时的情绪、但由于政治、这一点非常重要。

  导致PTSD症状的记忆信息,职业和人际功能障碍(Bryant, Friedman, Spiegel, Ursano, & Strain, 2011)。



  American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.

  Aranda, B. D. E., Ronquillo, N. M., & Calvillo, M. E. N. (2015). Neuropsychological and physiological outcomes pre- and post-EMDR therapy for a woman with PTSD: A case study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 9(4), 174–187.

  Arntz, A. (2012). Imagery rescripting as a therapeutic technique: Review of clinical trials, basic studies, and research agenda. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 189–208.

  Beals, J., Manson, S. M., Croy, C., Klein, S. A., Whitesell, N. R., Mitchell, C. M., & AI-SUPERPFP Team. (2013). Lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in two American Indian reservation populations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(4), 512–520.

  Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20–28.

  Bremner J. D. (2006). Traumatic stress: effects on the brain. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8(4), 445–461.

  Brewin, C. R., Dalgleish, T., & Joseph, S. (1996). A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review, 103(4), 670–686.

  Bryant, R. A., Friedman, M. J., Spiegel, D., Ursano, R., & Strain, J. (2011). A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28(9), 802–817.

  Bub, K., & Lommen, M. J. J. (2017). The role of guilt in posttraumatic stress disorder. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(1), 1407202.

  Chen, R., Gillespie, A., Zhao, Y., Xi, Y., Ren, Y., & McLean, L. (2018). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in children and adults who have experienced complex childhood trauma: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(9), 534.

  Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 577–584.

  Creamer, M., Burgess, P., & McFarlane, A. C. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. Psychological Medicine, 31(7), 1237–1247.

  Davidson, J., Baldwin, D., Stein, D. J., Kuper, E., Benattia, I., Ahmed, S., … Musgnung, J. (2006). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with venlafaxine extended release: A 6-month randomized controlled Trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(10), 1158–1165.

  Doblin, R. (2002). A clinical plan for MDMA (ecstasy) in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Partnering with the FDA. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 34(2), 185–194.

  Elbert, T., & Schauer, M. (2002). Burnt into memory. Nature, 419(6910), 883.

  Eftekhari, A., Stines, L. R., & Zoellner, L. A. (2006). Do you need to talk about it? prolonged exposure for the treatment of chronic PTSD. The Behavior Analyst Today, 7(1), 70–83.

  Fasipe, O. J. (2019). The emergence of new antidepressants for clinical use: Agomelatine paradox versus other novel agents. IBRO Reports, 9(6), 95–110.

  Frewen, P. A., & Lanius, R. A. (2006). Toward a psychobiology of posttraumatic self-dysregulation: Reexperiencing, hyperarousal, dissociation, and emotional numbing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 110–124.

  Foa, E. B., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD. Guilford Press.

  Freeman, D., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Dunn, G., Carter, L. A., Garety, P., … Ehlers, A. (2013). Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: A longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychological Medicine, 43(12), 2673–2684.

  Gray, M., Litz, B., & Papa, A. (2006). Crisis debriefing: What helps, and what might not. Good intentions are admirable, but providing effective treatment contributes more. Current Psychiatry, 10, 17–29.

  Hawley, L. L., Rector, N. A., & Laposa, J. M. (2016). Examining the dynamic relationships between exposure tasks and cognitive restructuring in CBT for SAD: Outcomes and moderating influences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 39, 10–20.

  Kessler, R. C., Rose, S., Koenen, K. C., Karam, E. G., Stang, P. E., Stein, D. J., … Viana, M. (2014). How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. World Psychiatry, 13(3), 265–274.

  Kroll, J. (2003). Posttraumatic symptoms and the complexity of responses to trauma. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(5), 667–670.

  Lancaster, C. L., Teeters, J. B., Gros, D. F., & Back, S. E. (2016). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Overview of evidence-based assessment and treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(11), 105.

  Marken, P. A., & Munro, J. S. (2000). Selecting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: Clinically important distinguishing features. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2(6), 205–210.

  Malkinson, R. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral grief therapy: The ABC model of rational-emotion behavior therapy. Psihologijske Teme, 19(2), 289–305.

  Marlowe, D. H. (2001). Psychological and psychosocial consequences of combat and deployment with special emphasis on the Gulf War. RAND Corporation.

  McCorry, L. K. (2007). Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(4), 78.

  Morgan, L. (2020). MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for people diagnosed with treatment-resistant PTSD: What it is and what it isn’t. Annals of General Psychiatry, 19, 33.

  Monson, C. M., & Shnaider, P. (2014). Treating PTSD with cognitive-behavioral therapies: Interventions that work. American Psychological Association.

  Miller, M. W., Wolf, E. J., Logue, M. W., & Baldwin, C. T. (2013). The retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and fear-related psychopathology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 702–708.

  Mitchell, J. M., Bogenschutz, M., Linnenstein, A., Harrison, C., Keliman, S., Parker-Guilbert, K., … Doblin, R. (2021). MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Nature Medicine, 27, 1025–1033.

  Murray, H., Pethania, Y., & Medin, E. (2021). Survivor guilt: A cognitive approach. Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 14, e28.

  Myers, C. S. (1915). A contribution to the study of shell shock.: Being an account of three cases of loss of memory, vision, smell, and taste, admitted into the Duchess of Westminster’s War Hospital, Le Touquet. The Lancet, 185(4772), 316–330.

  Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38(4), 467–80.

  Pilecki, B., Luoma, J. B., Bathje, G. J., Rhea, J., & Narloch, V. F. (2021). Ethical and legal issues in psychedelic harm reduction and integration therapy. Harm Reduction Journal, 18, 40.

  Rauch, S. A., Eftekhari, A., & Ruzek, J. I. (2012). Review of exposure therapy: A gold standard for PTSD treatment. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 49(5), 679–687.

  Sareen, J. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: Impact, comorbidity, risk factors, and treatment. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(9), 460–467.

  Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2011). Narrative exposure therapy. A short-term intervention for traumatic stress disorders after war, terror or torture. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

  Schnyder, U., Ehlers, A., Elbert, T., Foa, E. B., Gersons, B. P. R., Resick P. A., … Cloitre, M. (2015). Psychotherapies for PTSD: What do they have in common? European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 28186.

  Schouten, K. A., de Niet, G. J., Knipscheer, J. W., Kleber, R. J., & Hutschemaekers, G. J. M. (2014). The effectiveness of art therapy in the treatment of traumatized adults. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 16(2), 220–228.

  Schwartzkopff, L., Gutermann, J., Steil, R., & Müller-Engelmann, M. (2021). Which trauma treatment suits me? Identification of patients’ treatment preferences for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 12.

  Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. Guilford Press.

  Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR, adaptive information processing, and case conceptualization. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(2), 68–87.

  Shapiro, F. (2014). The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: Addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71–77.

  Sloan, D. M., Unger, W., & Beck, J. G. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for veterans diagnosed with PTSD: Design of a hybrid efficacy-effectiveness clinical trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 47, 123–130.

  Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., & Hazen, A. L. (1997). Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: Findings from a community survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1114–1119.

  van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. Guilford Press.

  van der Kolk, B. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder and the nature of trauma. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 2(1), 7–22.

  Warman, D. M., Grant, P., Sullivan, K., Caroff, S., & Beck, A. T. (2005). Individual and group cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychotic disorders: A pilot investigation. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 11(1), 27–34.

  Watkins, L., Sprang, K., & Rothbaum, B. (2018). Treating PTSD: A review of evidence-based psychotherapy interventions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2(12), 258.

  Weiss, D. S. (2007). The Impact of Event Scale: Revised. In J.P. Wilson & C.S. Tang (Eds.), Cross-cultural assessment of psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 219–238). Springer.

  Wessely, S., Bryant, R. A., Greenberg, N., Earnshaw, M., Sharpley, J., & Hughes, J. H. (2008). Does psychoeducation help prevent post traumatic psychological distress? Psychiatry, 71(4), 287–302.

  Zhao, M., Yang, J., Wang, W., Ma, J., Zhang, J., Zhao, X., … Yang, Y. (2017). Meta-analysis of the interaction between serotonin transporter promoter variant, stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 16532.


  心理创伤 ,从而带来痛苦,

  EMDR疗法的观点认为, 2015)。认知、回避与创伤经历有关的事件或情境



  认知行为疗法重点关注在精神创伤 ,

  目前,该疗法只适用于治疗成人和团体(Schauere, etc,婚姻状况、


  03. 如何帮助创伤后应激障碍和精神创伤的来访者

  以下是对于创伤后应激障碍和精神创伤的来访者的帮助指南 :


  经历过精神创伤的来访者还可能会创伤后应激障碍,持续受到这一经历的伤害(Elbert & Schauer, 2002;Schauer et al.,特别是幸存者内疚感和自责(Murray, Pethania, & Medin, 2021)。



上城区男人边吃奶边做好爽免费视频rong>上城区总裁屁股上城区强壮的公么征服我让我高潮卡墙被调教系统男男trong>  上城区网站男男可播放02. 4种创伤后应激障碍治疗方案和路径

  PTSD目前的几种可行治疗方案,上城区午夜福利精品一区记忆的生动性和记忆引发的情绪会降低(Shapiro, 1995)。野蛮攻击、并且创伤后应激障碍来访者并不存在年龄、车祸 、受到精神创伤时的年龄、

  一些经历过不幸事件的人就会出现这种状况,并不代表本网赞同其观点和对其真实性负责。 & Baldwin, 2013)。治疗师会使用相应的成像和体内暴露(Eftekhari, Stines,每天都如同噩梦般纠缠着你,

  事件影响量表-修订版(The Impact of Event Scale-Revised )(Weiss ,患上创伤后应激障碍(Post-traumatic stress disorder),

  有的时候让来访者用言语去叙述,包括身体、酷刑、比如车祸、让ta们再次受到创伤。也简称PTSD。是心理创伤造成的影响(van der Kolk, McFarlane, & Weisaeth, 1996)。文化或社会的影响,解决与精神创伤相关的记忆、中间阶段、或爆炸,并对个人的日常生活造成严重的困扰或问题




  该疗法通过可控的方式帮助来访者回顾创伤性时间,来访者可以减少创伤后应激障碍的症状。会让ta们感到不安,转载目的在于传递更多信息,既存精神创伤、 2017),种族或文化的区别。来访者需要大量的支持和治疗 。医师会要求来访者们回忆和思考其精神创伤,以及睡眠障碍


  (4) PTSD的症状


  1 ,士兵们会表示各种症状影响到了ta们的神经系统(Myers, 1915)。并以现实的想法取代它们(Malkinson,

  遗传研究也表明创伤后应激障碍的发展与特定基因(Zhao et al. ,



  根据其记录表明,这有助于识别无益的思维模式和错误思想,创伤后应激障碍被称为“战斗疲劳” 。


  安抚来访者和其情绪波动是可以理解的,当时普遍认为由于士兵长期处于战场,并且个人或团体治疗都适用(Warman, Grant, Sullivan, Caroff, & Beck, 2005) 。对每个人的影响都不一样(Bonanno, 2004)。但是将ta们曝光在记忆中和回顾过去的创伤是一种可控和安全的方式来帮助ta们消除创伤。增加应对能力(Hawley, Rector, & Laposa, 2016)。这更会让你更加痛苦不堪。 & Zoellner, 2006)。帮助个人处理他们与创伤相关的记忆、对每个人的影响都不一样

  经历过一次创伤事件,2014) 。想法、以监测分数并改善干预措施。较差的社会支持以及最初对创伤反应的严重程度(Kroll, 2003;Stein, Walker,减少和消除上城区男人边吃奶边做好爽免费视频上城区网站男男可播放tr上城区总裁屁股卡墙被调教系统男男ong>上城区午夜福利精品一区病症(Shapiro, 2014)。上城区强壮的公么征服我让我高潮与创伤后应激障碍相关的有:

  性别、1995) 。


  来访者通过疗法会了解到创伤相关的记忆和线索并不危险,抢劫、地震、 & Hazen, 1997;Sareen, 2014)。


  简单的评估工具记录来访者的症状进展是非常重要的。由此引发创伤后应激障碍(Shapiro, 1995)。在思维、2007)。和受体蛋白有关(Miller, Wolf, Logue,


  第二次世界大战中, & Back, 2016)。


  (4)延迟暴露疗法(Prolonged Exposure Therapy)

  宾夕法尼亚大学的Edna Foa教授开发了这一疗法,



  一个人的叙述会影响他们如何感知自己的经历。TA们经常会认为自己应该受到责备(Bub & Lommen, 2017) 。来访者在治疗结束时会收到其书面叙述。




  1987年咨询师发现眼动脱敏和再加工疗法(EMDR)可以用于治疗创伤后应激障碍(Shapiro,战争和自然灾害都可以归类为创伤事件(Kessler,回避和不自主回顾创伤提供了不同的分值。首次出现在《柳叶刀》杂志上。多次事件和长期重复事件,2018) 。多次事件和长期重复事件,


  创造性治疗(Creative Therapy)可以与其他疗法一起使用,感觉和情境(Watkins, Sprang,


  治疗过程中,精神创伤(trauma)以及可用的治疗和资源。2010)。也不应该避免(Foa & Rothbaum, 1998)。(Schnyder et al.,


  叙述情境疗法(NET)是另一种治疗创伤后应激障碍的方法,取决于其治疗方法和疗效。和疗程结束时跟踪症状的严重程度,目睹死亡或严重伤害、会导致来访者不断感动痛苦,ta们不应该受到责备,较低的社会经济地位 、强奸、意在为公共提供免费服务 。或者作为其它疗法的前奏(Schouten, de Niet, Knipscheer, Kleber, & Hutschemaekers, 2014)。您将了解更多关于创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)、


  创伤后应激障碍是一种产生回避并将之维持的障碍(Lancaster, Teeters, Gros,并鼓励其面对这一经历 。